A Scenery of Jinan
Jinan is a sub-provincial city and the capital of Shandong province, People’s Republic of China. Located in western Shandong, it borders Liaocheng to the southwest, Dezhou to the northwest, Binzhou to the northeast, Zibo to the east, Laiwu to the southeast and Tai’an to the south.
Jinan is located in the north-western part of Shandong province at 36° 40′ northern latitude and 116° 57′ east of Greenwich. Because its location falls within the warm temperate continental monsoon climate zone, Jinan has four distinct seasons. The city is dry and rainless in spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 14.2°C, and the annual rainfall is around 675 mm. January is the coldest and driest month, the monthly averages are -5.4°C for the daily minimum temperature, 3.6°C for the daily maximum temperature, and 6.6 mm for the rainfall. July is the warmest and wettest month, the corresponding numbers are 23.5°C, 32.6°C, and 190.9 mm (Source: The Global Historical Climatology Network, version 2 beta, covering 874 months between 1916 and 1990).
Jinan has been recognized by the State Council of China as a worthy cultural-historic city. The ancient site on which Jinan was erected was probably settled as early as the Shang Dynasty, 3,000 years ago. From its location, south of the ancient Ji Waters, comes Jinan’s name, literally meaning South of Ji. Jinan slowly developed during the Zhou Dynasty; by the Jin Dynasty, Buddhism began to flourish in the area, and various temples were erected making Jinan the religious center of Shandong at the time. During the Northern Song Dynasty, Jinan became a prefecture and was called “The nation of literature and the place of wealth.” Jinan being one of the biggest tax-collecting zones in the kingdom.
Jinan was home to China’s oldest trademark bronze plate. This shows the fast industrial and commercial development in Jinan at the time. The “Two An’s of Jinan” created a lot of famous poetry and literature during this period, and became famous representatives of China’s literary elite. The city continued to develop throughout the Ming and Qing Dynasties, becoming one of the most important trading centers in its region of China by the late Qing.
Industrial development thrived before the Japanese Invasion of China in 1933, during the times of the Republic. The city was damaged during World War II and was later rebuilt to a large extent. Since Deng Xiaoping’s reforms, Jinan has strived to develop into a modern metropolis. Trade has opened up and Jinan’s former industrial strengths have resurfaced.
The economic development of Jinan only came to speed since Deng Xiaoping’s 1978 reforms, opened up China to the outside world. The focus was on improving medium and large sized enterprises, thus improving the level of industrial competition. Technological developments were improved greatly. Jinan is known for various famous brands that come from the city. Jinan is moving towards specializing in industries such as social insurance, telecommunications, information, and tourism.
Agriculture and the rural economy also got a huge boost since 1978. The old way of operating agriculture is being replaced by a newer, more modern method. More and more enterprises are going to rural areas to do more business. The forest and fishing industries also thrive in the region. It is one of the top producers in China of cotton, peanuts, and fruit.
Economic growth has been fast, at a pace of nearly 12% a year in the growth of GDP since 1990. The GDP per capita was ¥25192 (US$3042) in 2003, ranked no. 38 among 659 Chinese cities.
Jinan is known for its beautiful natural sites, and is one of the greatest tourist destinations in Shandong. Jinan boasts a series of old and childhood homes of politicians, philosophers, dynastic officials, and artists. Furthermore, Jinan’s purported picturesque scenery by the lake and ruddy waters that flow in and around the city make it more attractive to domestic tourists — a lot of this was reflected by famous Tang Dynasty poet Du Fu. Sadly, industrialisation, pollution, unfortunate “post revolution” architecture and frequent dust storms reduce the allure of its once-spectacular beauty. There are more than a few natural scenery sites in Jinan. Just over an hour to the south, closer to Tai’an, is the famous Tai Shan, one of the five “great Chinese mountains” (Wu Yue). To the north are scenic blue-colored mountains, beside the Yellow River. Jinan is also known for its natural springs, which have only recently become functional again after the depleted and polluted water table was artificially replenished after decades of sluggish inactivity. However, for a great percentage of the year the city is extremely dry.
Tourist attractions include:
Baotu Spring Park
Shandong Provincial Museum – unique in China for displaying a dead six-legged calf in its natural exhibits area.
Black Tiger Springs
Baimai Spring in Zhangqiu
Chengziya Museum of Longshan Culture